The Way of the Shaman

The way of the Shaman is the way of the “wounded healer”, to be human is to be wounded. Shamanic experiences are part of everyday life, the cycles of birth, death and re-birth are an intrinsic part of our reality. This pattern is repeated throughout our lives as we are continually being born into new experiences and dying to old habits, behavior patterns and belief systems.

siberian shaman


Siberian Shaman

The shaman uses ecstatic techniques to enter the shamanic state of consciousness travel out of the body, make contact with spirit guides and power animals and therefore effect changes in ordinary reality, working closely with nature and the elemental forces. Shamanic practice and techniques help us reconnect to ourselves, each other, the Earth and to the great mystery that we are all a part of.

Shamanism for today

Ancient mystical and shamanic prophecies have predicted that the times we are living in will be an era of tremendous change and many believe that the earth and humanity are experiencing a death-rebirth struggle, that the contractions have started and it is painful but the baby will be born.

We all have the opportunity to raise our awareness through various visionary practices now. Humanity needs to raise its collective consciousness to a higher vibration in order to awaken from this materialistic nightmare to a more enlightened vision of peace and harmony.

Human survival now depends on our consciousness evolution away from our predatory nature towards the state of grace of loving kindness and compassion for all life on the earth.




Shamans Journey

Shamans and mystics journey to the inner world to confront the shadow side, contact teachers and guides and mediate healing and visionary teachings for the community. In order to raise our consciousness we all must do our inner work, confront our shadow side, withdraw our negative projections and make contact with our true glorious divine nature.

Shamanism is humanity’s most ancient tradition for healing, solving problems and for keeping in harmony with nature, society and other people. Traditionally a shaman is a person who can change their state of consciousness at will in order to journey to other realities to obtain power and knowledge for themselves and others.

The core methods and ideas of shamanism have been used by shamanic peoples all over the earth for thousands of years.

These traditional methods include drumming, rattling and dancing to enter a shamanic state of consciousness, and connect with our power animals and spirit helpers.


The shamanic way of working can be used in a practical way for healing ourselves and others and connecting deeper into nature in our everyday lives.

Death and dying

Shamans work with death and dying from a positive perspective. Death and dying are often taboo subjects in our society whereas shamanic people embrace the positive healing benefits of making death your ally and teacher. Facing death as a part of life leads to a rebirth of a new more whole self.

Shamanic methods allow us to become familiar with where we go after death, complete unfinished business, help souls cross over the threshold between life and death, and act as a guide for the soul of the dying to the other world.

Illness and disease

From a Shamanic perspective illness and disease come from three main causes : loss of power, intrusions, and soul loss. Shamans use techniques to restore power to their clients who are suffering from the symptoms of power loss. They see and sense ‘intrusions’ and remove them using shamanic extraction techniques.

Soul retrieval

Soul loss can occur when a person undergoes a traumatic event in their lives. Such as loss of loved one, accident or injury, separation or loss of a relationship, abuse, or any event that the person is shocked or hurt by. At the time of the trauma part of the person¹s soul sometimes leaves their body as a survival strategy in order not to be totally devastated by the shock of the negative experience. Sometimes the soul part is reluctant to return to the person because it fears that it is not safe to do so. Some of the symptoms of soul loss are feeling spaced out, numb, depressed, deadened, addictions, chronic sickness. Soul loss prevents us from feeling connected to ourselves, others and the earth.

Soul retrieval is an important part of Shamanic healing work. Shamans use techniques to track and retrieve lost souls and return them to their rightful place.

shaman native



According to Mircea Eliade, “Magic and magicians are to be found more or less all over the world, whereas shamanism exhibits a particular magical specialty, “mastery over fire”, “magical flight”, and so on. By virtue of this fact, though the shaman is, among other things, a magician, not every magician can properly be termed a shaman. . . . . the shaman specializes in a trance in which his soul is believed to leave his body and ascend to the sky or descend to the underworld.”

Michael Harner describes a shaman this way: “A shaman is a man or woman who enters an altered state of consciousness – at will- to contact or utilize an ordinarily hidden reality in order to acquire knowledge, power, and to help other persons. The shaman has at least one, and usually more, “spirits” in his personal service.” Harner goes on to say, “To this I would add that, in his trance, he commonly works to restore a patient by restoring beneficial or vital power, or by extracting harmful power. The journey to which Eliade refers is usually undertaken to restore power or a lost soul.”

Shamanism, in a “pure” sense, is usually characterisitic of paleolithic hunter-gatherer societies. As such, it can safely be said to represent humankind’s earliest and most primal form of religion, magic and healing modality. It is also the most conservative and well established form of human spirituality, as we were hunter gatherers for literally thousands and thousands of years, far longer than the subsequent span of our collective history.

Contemporary thinkers like ecologist Paul Shephard and anthropologist Calvin Martin maintain that we are still, essentially, hunter-gatherers who have never left the Pleistocene era. This fits in well with many indigenous peoples’ concept of the Original Instructions or Original Teachings, the primary and aboriginal rules for living received many thousands of years ago during the dreamtime or mythic beginning time of the tribe.

It would appear from ethnographic literature that what we might refer to as the full shamanic complex is found primarily in primal hunter gatherer cultures who had a nomadic or semi-nomadic life and close proximity to wilderness and wild animals.

Steven Wolf, a Sundancer and shamanic practitioner of Northern Cheyenne and Irish ancestry, who has practiced within the Northern Plains spiritual traditions for over twenty five years, has this to say:”These days everyone seems to have a definition, and interpretation of the term”shamanism”. from the structural anthropologists to the mythologists to the Jungians, the Freudians, the transpersonal psychotherapists, the process oriented psychologists, to the New Agers with their psycho- babble. The academics hold to a strict, rigid definition, feeling they have proprietary rights to the term and smirking at everyone else. On the other hand, New Agers have a definition so broad as to be meaningless. Both sides miss the profound depth and breadth of this particular spiritual way, which is much more than mere technique. Shamanism may possibly be the oldest spiritual path, and consequently has far more profound implications for contemporary humans than its academic interpreters realize. The reason for this is that the act of interpretation is a mental exercise, whereas “shamanism” is a living dynamic that involves all of the senses. A sensuous experience that must be known in a primary and primal way. The mental wheel-spinning of academics or the shallow genuflecting of New Age entrepreneurs will never truly comprehend it until they stop interpreting and start experiencing it, internally and externally, with mind, emotion, body and spirit.”

Celtic Shamanism

The idea of shamanism as a part of Celtic tradition has become very popular in recent years. Various authors and workshop presenters have promulgated the idea of a Celtic shamanism.

The Celts were advanced beyond the paleolithic, hunter-gatherer stage long before they became distinguishable from their Indo European cousins and arose as a separate cultural entity. However, given the notable conservatism of Celtic society, it is very likely that they preserved archaic elements and institutions long beyond other Northern and Western European peoples. Also, the Irish Celts preserved within their society nominal hunter-warrior bands, as the existence of the fennidi clearly demonstrates.

Although shamanism can be said to have it’s origins in the paleolithic, it clearly survives in a fairly unaltered form within societies which have made the transition from hunter-gatherer to agriculturalist, pastoralist, or even modern post industrial lifestyles, as with contemporary Native Americans.

According to Whistemenknee – “Walking Medicine Robe” (Johnny Moses), a Pacific Northwest Coast Indian Doctor, or shaman, “Well, my grandparents were both shamans. My grandfather was a shaman that dealt with mainly people who were dying, cases of near death experiences, and my grandmother was a midwife and a shaman that dealt mainly with children and counseling. . . . . They would also bring me around to other people who were also shamans; not necessarily my relatives. We went to other tribes and they would leave me with teachers who were shamans, for instance Twakwaddle and Towuk Bay. I was left with this one man at the age of eleven for two months to learn about spirit travelling, a shamanic practice that our people do. . . . . There are some shamans that just have the power to communicate with people well. There are some shamans that heal through art. There are some shamans that do the painting board ceremony, in which the shaman would ask the client, “Well, why are you here? What are you here for?” That’s how they talk in Indian, and they’ll start explaining themselves. The shaman will be a good listener, and through time of however long it takes for that person to explain themselves, it could be half an hour, three or four hours, sometimes all night. Then after that the shaman will go into shushutsulus, the spirit world. Some of the white people might call it a trance, but it’s not really a trance because you know what you’re doing at the same time that you’re in the spirit world. The designs that he would start painting would have many different meanings. The painting might tell another shaman about the sickness, problem, that this person has. Another shaman might have the power to read paintings. He can look at the painting and tell the client what his sickness or problem is just by the painting. . . . . The shamans are always working together. That’s what it’s all about; coming together, learning about people. When you become a shaman you have to work for the people, not just for yourself. You have to share.”

The awenyddion of Wales, first written of in the Twefth century by Geraldus Cambrensis, are cited by some writers as evidence of a native tradition of Celtic shamanism. The awenyddion were prophets and soothsayers who , when asked a question by those seeking divinatory guidance, would fall into a deep trance and give strange, sibyl-like prophecies and oracular utterances. The trance of the awenyddion was so deep that it appeared to be a kind of posession, from which they had to be violently roused to awaken. Some have claimed that, like shamans the world over, the awwenyddion communed with their tutelary or helping spirits while in this state.

Druid Shaman

This account the awwenyddion bears a striking resemblance to descriptions of shamanic trances entered into in other cultures for similar reasons.Other references in the literature and folklore of Wales, Ireland and Scotland speak of Druids shape-shifting, prophesying, controlling the weather, healing, conversing with spirits and wearing feathered cloaks in order to facilitate flight, all activities associated with shamanic figures in other cultures. Antlered figures representing a Lord of Animals, like the one on the 1st century BCE Gundestrup Cauldron suggest a shamanic belief in the spiritual power of animals. Taken together, these fragments of information give us an image of early Druids that is clearly shaman-like.


Gundestrup Cauldron

In the Story of Taliesin the inspired bard gains three gifts from the cauldron brewed by the goddess Ceridwen: poetry (bard), prophecy (ovate) and the shamanic power of shape-shifting (Druid).

It is believed by many that classical Druids, 2,000 years ago and more, were the shamans of Europe, and that, as modern Druids, we may still fulfill that same role for the benefit of our communities and our world.

Scottish history and legend is replete with stories of magickal workings, spells and charms. A lot of this reflects the very forms of the airt used by the Pecti Wita, or Pict Witches.

In Orkney, there is a charm performed to bring a good supply of butter. To ensure a favourable breeze, fishermen and seamen at Gourock Bay would pace seven times around a large monolith standing on the cliffs. Some still do it today. In Moray, Pechts would cut down woodbine in the waxing of the March moon. These they would twist into wreaths and preserve for a year and a day. After that time young children suffering from fever could be passed through three times and be cured. Even today, throughout the highlands many people carry a lucky penny or “peighinn pisich”. This has to be turned over three times, at the first glimpse of the full moon. These go on and on, and as mentioned earlier, many are still practised today.

Traces of the old Druidic reverence for the sun still linger throughout Scotland. It was believed that both the sun and moon could exert strong magickal influences. In this respect the moon was more powerful than the sun.

The “Mother of All” was Cailleach: an old “hag” often depicted with the teeth of a wild bear, or with boar’s tusks. She was reputed to be a great worker of spells. Cailleach has also been identifies with Scotia, after whom Scotland was named.

If there was a male deity who was especially acknowledged it was Gruagach. This name means “the long-haired one.” In the western highlands he was placated by oblations of milk, which were poured into a hollow stone. He was looked upon as the guardian of cattle and as a valiant warrior and a sorcerer. Another deity was Sluag (Slooa) the Host of the Unforgiven Dead. He was the inventor of the Ogham writing.

If we use Harner’s definition of a shaman as a man or woman who “enters an altered state of consciousness . . . to contact and utilize an ordinarily hidden reality in order to acquire knowledge, power, and to help other persons”, and who has “at least one, and usually more, “spirits”, in his personal service”  then we shall quite easily find many examples of the shaman within Celtic societies, from ancient up through contemporary times.

For the modern spiritual seeker or shamanic practitioner seeking a connection with Celtic roots, there is a wealth of rich material to explore in several languages, existing in books both ancient and modern.

Some scholars have suggested the Old Irish word fili, meaning a kind of poet/seer, as the likely term for a shaman in ancient Irish society.

There is, in addition, the Land herself upon which our Celtic ancestors lived, and upon which their descendants yet live today. If we empty ourselves, and go to Her, and seek in the silence to hear Her voice, she will speak to us as she spoke to those ancient and far flung wanderers.

Otherworld Journies

Celtic tales abound with examples of heroes who travel into one or more Otherworlds in quest of magical prizes, knowledge or power, with which to bring healing to the land, skill to craftsman, warrior or hunter.

King Arthurs voyage

King Arthur’s famous journey to Annwn, the Underworld of the British Celts, in quest of a mysterious Cauldron of Inspiration and Rebirth, recorded by the Thirteenth century Welsh poet Thomas Ap Einion, is a late example of the type of Celtic Otherworld journey known in old Irish as immramma. Immramma usually refers to a voyage by sea, that is, into that portion of the triadic Celtic cosmos (land, sea and sky) equated with the watery element. True to form, King Arthur journeys into Annwn aboard his magical ship Prydwen. The bard Taliesin, in many respects the classic shaman figure within Welsh tradition, accompanies Arthur on this perilous Otherworldly voyage. Like the Irish poet and outlaw Finn, who frequently pays a price of personal humiliation or wounding in obtaining Otherworldly gifts, Arthur does not emerge unscathed from this adventure. For though Arthur sets forth with three companies of men, “except for seven, none return”. This idea of reciprocity between the worlds, that a price must be paid for Otherworldly knowledge and gifts, runs though world shamanic tradition. Shamans typically undergo exceptional ordeals in their quest for healing power, magical knowledge, etc. The very nature of the shaman’s suffering and trials place him outside of ordinary society, where the thought of undertaking such dangerous questing is anathema to the conventional man or woman. This contributes to the shaman’s liminality, the state of in betweeness that is one of the keynotes of Otherworldly and sacred power in Celtic tradition.


Finn MacCumhal

Outlaw, poet, craftsman and seer, Finn MacCumhal is the quintessential shamanic figure in the old Gaelic sagas, though by no means the only one demonstrating shamanic abilities.Early in life Finn undergoes the training to become a fennid, being raised in exile in the wilderness by two mysterious foster mothers, one known as a druid, who train him in the arts of hunting and fighting. According to Joseph Nagy, “In early Irish literature, the fennid usually appears as a figure living and functioning outside or on the margins of the tribal territory and community (the tuath).”. The fennidi together form a group called a fian, or war band. Their leader is the rifennid, usually one known for his exceptional prowess. These fennidi functioned as mercenaries and upholders of the law in ancient Ireland, even though they themselves were often seen as outlaws.

Finn becomes adept in the arts of fennidecht, the hunting and martial arts of the fennidi, and in time becomes rifennid of his own fian. An element that distinguishes Finn from other fennidi though is his status as a fili, or poet/seer. The role of fili is very highly regarded in the Irish tribal hierarchy, quite in contrast to Finn’s other role as outlaw mercenary. This dual role fully establishes Finn’s liminality, his quality of being both within and outside of any particular world, social stratum, role, etc. This liminality, and Finn’s winning of liminal knowledge and power from Otherworldly sources, is illustrated in the many tales of his journeys into various Otherworld realms.

Like numerous other characters in traditional Celtic stories Finn passes quite easily between the worlds. Indeed, one often has the impression that Finn and his companions do not always know when they have left the ordinary, mortal world and passed into one of the Otherworldly realms. Nowhere is this more pronounced than in the collection of stories about Finn and his fian, taken from Gaelic oral tradition, known as the bruidhean tales. According to leading Finn scholar Joseph Nagy, “The word bruidhean means “hostel,” and in both Fenian and non-Fenian narrative the dwellings described as bruidhne are explicitly or implicitly otherworldly”. Finn and his men have many wondrous and terrifying adventures within these bruidhne, where they are often the guests, willing or otherwise, of supernatural hosts. As Nagy points out, “in the bruidhean situation Finn alternates radically between being a victimized guest and an agressive intruder – between being manipulated by, and a manipulator of, the otherworld.”. The apparent dichotomy between being at the mercy of, and yet also manipulating the spirit world features strongly in the accounts of shamans the world over. In a number of the bruidhean stories Finn and his men become, or almost become, food for the Otherworldly hosts. In a Scottish bruidhean tale collected from oral tradition Finn is captured and placed upon a griddle, where his legs are burned off. He is then impaled upon a stake. In another tale the bruidhean host threatens to remove the flesh of the fennidi with pincers and feed it to his dogs; his cannibalistic wife wants to eat the fennidi raw. These stories are strikingly similar to accounts from shamans of many different cultures and eras who report a common experience of being devoured by spirits, only to be reshaped or reformed as a result and emerging from the experience restored to greater wholeness and vitality, often with enhanced shamanic powers. An indeed, in all of the stories in which Finn is cooked or dismembered he is eventually restored, and frequently gains some magical boon or ability which he is able to bring back from the Otherworld and use within human society.

Finn does, though, sometimes bear lasting wounds or scars from his Otherworldly battles. In a story called the ‘Feast of Conan’s House’ Finn is tricked by a woman of the sidhe (faery or supernatural woman) into swimming in a magic lake which robs him of his characteristic youth and strength. The lord of a nearby dwelling gives Finn a magical drink which both restores Finn’s strength and gives him special supernatural knowledge. Though Finn regains his youth, half of his hair remains grey. The faery lord offers to restore it to it’s original color, but Finn chooses to keep it the way it is. From then on Finn’s hair is half grey and his person exudes a smell of decay, emblems of his dealings with the Otherworld and of his supernatural knowledge. Such visible markers of Otherworldly experience and attainment form part of the shaman’s regalia in many indigenous cultures, at once setting the shaman apart from the common populace and underscoring his liminality.

Finn also fulfills a shamanic role in one other important respect: his journeys into various Otherworld realms are not merely gratuitous, for he sometimes uses his supernatural powers to protect human society from dangerous Otherworld intrusions. As quintessentially liminal figures Finn and the fennidi act as buffers and border guards between the human and supernatural realms. Thus in one bruidhean tale the son of a king of the sidhe tries to conquer Ireland, but is defeated by Finn and his Fian. Again, in another story Finn’s men protect the coastline from a sea monster Finn detects using his Otherworld-gained divinatory powers. Finn also rescues the corr bolg, or crane bag, a bundle of magical treasures of immeasurable value to the land of Ireland while avenging his father’s death. The source of this Otherworldly bag is said to be the sea god Manannan, a mysterious deity possibly pre-dating the Celts, who acts to part the mists between the Worlds.

Another ancient Irish tale that perhaps goes the farthest in describing the various Otherworld islands encountered during immrama is Immram Curaig Maelduin Inso or The Voyage of Maelduin’s Boat, first written down in the eighth or ninth century A.D. The hero Maelduin sets out to avenge his father’s murder, first consulting a wise druid for counsel. He ends up voyaging with seventeen men in a curragh, or skin boat, to thirty three distinct Otherworld islands. Maelduin and his shipmates undergo numerous adventures on the magical islands with names like the Island of Giant Ants, The Island of the Crystal Keep, and the Island of the Falcon, where they encounter beautiful Otherworldly women, ancestors, and mysterious semi-divine beings. Through his adventures Maelduin’s personality matures and deepens, he grows in wisdom and ends up forgiving his enemies.

A striking element of Maelduin’s Voyage, like other Celtic wonder tales, is that the Otherworld realms are not described as amorphous, vaporous places constructed apparently of ectoplasm and dim, misty light, as in some modern New Age and spiritualistic literature, but rather as definite, embodied worlds, each vivid and unique. These are sensuous realms, the “many coloured land”, as the early twentieth century poet and mystic AE (George Russell) characterized it, filled with forests of golden trees, magical animals who act as guides, women of unearthly beauty, and sparkling, crystal seas. In this respect, also, the Celtic tradition accords with accounts of shamans worldwide who describe the alternate worlds of their voyaging in specific and vivid terms. This very specificity of the shamanic spiritual worlds is what distinguishes the shaman’s journey, always undertaken with a clear purpose in mind, from the mental wandering of psychically unbalanced individuals. This characterisitic of the Celtic tales is matched in the Northwest Coast SiSiWiss tradition, as presented by my teacher Whistemenknee and other elders, by the “Teachings”, colorful stories handed down through many centuries of oral presentation, at potlatches and other ceremonies, which embody the entire spiritual lore of the hereditary northwest coast Indian Doctors (shamans). “We say the stories are the Teachings,” as one elder expressed it. Within these stories animals talk, human beings travel to Otherworldly realms such as the land under the ocean, the land of the dead, or up into the sky world, or backward or forward through time. Hunters and basket weavers gain supernatural allies, and miraculous healings and transformations occur. All realms interpenetrate, the tree and rock people express their concern at what the human beings are doing to Mother Earth, little men who live beneath the earth tell shamans how to heal various diseases, and time is circular rather than linear. The various locales of the Spirit World, which it is assumed within the culture anyone can travel to, willingly or unwillingly, are described in precise and vivid terms. And just like our physical world, these various extra-physical realms, and the beings within them, operate according to specific laws. In this sense the ancestral shamanic teachings of traditional Northwest Coast Native American Medicine People and the ancient and modern Celtic tales of Finn, Maelduin, and Arthur, among others, provide a strong reflection of each other. Again, there is the implicit assumption that within Celtic societies, as with Native Americans, the stories carried, in addition to entertainment value, the moral values, codes of conduct, and inherited spiritual lore of the tuath or tribe.

Fairy Faith

Though the days of high Celtic culture, of kings, warriors and druids, is long past, many elements of pre-Christian belief and ritual have survived in what is popularly known as the Fairy Faith. These remnants of ancient belief and lore were handed down from generation to generation among humble cottagers, shepherds, farmers and village folk living in outlying areas along the Celtic fringe. Along with Celtic traditional music, this considerable body of lore and practice represents a living and bountful heritage for students of Celtic spiritual ways. Within the Fairy Faith tradition, practiced in a far more humble context than the aristocratic millieu of ancient Ireland and Wales, voyages to the Otherworld, often in the company of supernatural companions and helpers, are undertaken by seers and fairy doctors – healers who treat their clients with a combination of inherited folk charms and supernatural aid. W.B. Yeats, who recounted many of his personal dealings with the people of the sidhe, has this to say,”The most celebrated fairy doctors are sometimes people the fairies loved and carried away, and kept with them for seven years; not that those the fairies love are always carried off – they may merely grow silent and strange, and take to lonely wanderings in the “gentle” places. Such will, in after-times, be great poets or musicians, or fairy doctors . . .”. Going on to discuss witches, Yeats refers to another classic shamanic ability: shapeshifting: “But the central notion of witchcraft everywhere is the power to change into some fictitious form, usually in Ireland a hare or cat. Long ago a wolf was the favorite.”. Here the great poet, in discussing the traditional lore of his native land, reveals the essentially shamanic nature of those beliefs and practices current among Irish country folk at the beginning of the twentieth century.

Perhaps the most famous fairy doctor of more recent times was Biddy Early, of County Clare in the west of Ireland, who died in 1873. Her life and doings are fairly well documented, due in part to the efforts of Lady Gregory who, early in the twentieth century, took it upon herself to interview many old people who had known Biddy and had been cured by her. Early in life Biddy reported experiences with the fairies as commonly as other children tell of playing with their friends. Though other country folk believed in and sometimes saw the “good people”, as the fairies were traditionally called, Biddy demonstrated an unusual degree of familiarity and contact with them. It appears that, as time went on, she became more private about her dealings with the Otherworld folk, suffering, no doubt, some of the social stigma of those who were thought to be “fey”. It is a fact that, throughout her life, she was often at odds with the local priest and bishop, who feared that her popularity as a healer among the local people threatened their spiritual authority. On several occasions they visited Biddy’s home to rebuke her for her “devilish” and un-Christian practices. Nonetheless, Biddy’s fame and efficacy as a fairy doctor spread throughout the land.

As a girl Biddy learned a great deal about the local herbs and healing plants, and her supernatural friends taught her of the plants’ occult, as well as natural, healing properties. Combining this otherworldly knowledge with inherited lore that was, undoubtedly, passed down within her family, she quietly began using her powers to help a few close friends and family. As Dermot MacManus writes about her, “Country traditions vary a great deal, according to custom and kinship, and it is always difficult to find a satisfactory dividing line between them and full-blooded magic, for each merges into the other imperceptibly”.

Her reputation as a healer and ‘white witch’ soon spread, and though the parish priest and bishop may have disdained her occult powers, the effectiveness of her cures was all the guarantee the country folk needed. It was to Biddy that they came, for she alone could cure what the priest and the bishop, with all their orthodox prayers and rites, could not. Following old tradition, Biddy took no payment for her services, though she did accept gifts, and was quite clear about just what sort of gifts she desired. These frequently included gifts of strong drink, for which Biddy had a very human weakness.

So far the life of Biddy Early exemplifies a number of themes which we can recognize from cross cultural accounts of shamans. Early in life she is chosen by, and demonstrates a marked affinity for, the denizens of a hidden, supernatural realm. These invisible allies instruct her in the healing arts, and combining their Otherworldly instruction with traditional lore passed down within her family, she gains prominence as a healer and seer. The fairies gift does not come without price, for the young Biddy undergoes a certain amount of social stigmatization as a result of her supernatural leanings, and this parallels somewhat the traumatic initiation of shamans within many indigenous cultures. This stigmatization continues throughout her life, despite her popularity as a healer, in the form of condemnation by church authorities.

A turning point in Biddy’s career came when she received the gift of a mysterious blue bottle, which some authors have compared to a shamanic “power object”, from the fairies. Her son, who shared her ability to see and communicate with the Otherworld folk, but not her healing and other magical gifts, was returning home one summer day. He was a lad of about nineteen at this time, of fine physical condition and noted athletic prowess. He had decided to take a short cut across country when, about a mile from his home, he saw a group of fairies with hurley sticks in a field, preparing for a game. But they were a man short, and asked young Early if he would come and play for them. He finally agreed, and playing well and skillfully, his team won. The fairies then presented him with a blue glass bottle and told him to take it to his mother. He asked them what he should say to her, but they answered, “You will tell her nothing. Just give it to her. She will know.”. When he got home he presented the bottle to Biddy, who gazed into it with astonishment. She soon noticed that the bottle began to fill with a vaprous mist, within which she could see mysterious signs and portents which had meaning for her. Though able to heal and function as a seer without it, Biddy began to employ the blue bottle in her work with clients and found that it enhanced her abilities. When she was unable to help a person in her usual way she would gaze into the fairy bottle, and soon found the message or information that enabled her to help the client. Within the swirling mists that formed within the bottle Biddy was able to see images of things to come, and the accuracy of the prophecies and personal predictions which she shared quite freely with those who consulted her was proverbial among the country folk who lived round about. Also, if Biddy gazed into the bottle and the characteristic mist did not appear, she knew that she could not help the person and would send them away. When Biddy died she left instructions that the bottle be cast into the depths of Loch Kilgarron, near to her home, from whence it has never been recovered.

Here again we encounter an element in fairly recent Irish country lore that reflects a theme running through cross cultural accounts of shamans. The receipt of a magical gift from Otherworld helpers which enables the shaman to heal and prophesy for the good of the community is a phenomenon encountered in many cultures around the world. A significant element within the story is the casting of the bottle into Loch Kilgarron at Biddy’s death, suggesting a return of the magical gift to it’s Otherworldly origins, since lakes are frequently entry ways into the numinous realms in Celtic tradition.

The final significant point in Biddy’s career, from a shamanic standpoint, is the little shed behind her house to which she would often repair at night to commune with her Otherworld helpers. This small enclosure was isolated by a little distance from the distractions of her home and family, and was probably dark dark inside, rather like a Native American sweat lodge. Her she held nightly consultations with the fairy folk who were her invisible companions and instructors in the arts of healing, spellcraft and prophecy. The dark enclosure within which to commune with tutelary deities and helping spirits is, again, so well known within the annals of shamanism as to require no comment. Biddy’s shed could have served a similar function to the bull hide in which the seer was wrapped during the ancient Gaelic tarbh feis ceremony, recounted in ‘The Destruction of Da Derga’s Hostel’.

It appears as though the fairie doctor tradition in Ireland and Scotland, like many aspects of traditional culture, either disappeared or went underground with increasing modernization and technological advances in the Gaelic speaking and adjoining areas where it survived most strongly. However there are tales of people who had the “sight” and the ability to heal in Connemara and County Clare in Ireland in the 1970’s and the interraction with the sidhe, in the village in County Galway and surrounding areas, was a fact of daily life. As a Dublin educated traditional musician once said to an American when asked about the fairies, “Well, I don’t believe in them . . . . but, they’re there.”

In her book Seal Morning, Rowena Farre gives an account of Mr. and Mrs. Fraser, a couple of fairie doctors who were her neighbors in a remote part of Sutherland, in northern Scotland, in the 1950’s. The Fraser’s were renowned healers, especially gifted in working with animals. Mr. Fraser was also known as a storyteller who had memorized three hundred and seventy six stories. Mrs. Fraser was an accomplished singer of Gaelic mouth music or peurt a beul, as well as being an extremely skilled knitter. “Mr. Fraser accepted fairies and the efficacy of spells in the same way as others accept the power of electricity. He did not believe so much as know, and therein lay his strength”. Farre goes on to say that Mr. Fraser’s father was from Wester Ross and his mother was from Tiree, in the Outer Hebrides. In his northern Scottish tradition magical knowledge is passed on from mother to son, and from father to daughter, and this is how the fairie traditions, the traditional lore of healing and spellcasting and seership, were passed on to Mr. Fraser and his sister.

Mr. Fraser was on speaking terms with water horses, supernatural creatures who haunt local lochs and often lure the unsuspecting to a watery death. His father, also a fairie doctor, had tamed one, so that it would come when he whistled and carry him to the other side of the loch. Mr. Fraser goes on to disclose elements of traditional Celtic magical lore to Rowena Farre, including the proper times of day for casting spells, occult lore of birds and animals, and a number of stories dealing with human interaction with the Otherworld.

Farre’s book, which was a popular best seller in the 1950’s, should give the lie to those writers who claim that the fairie doctor tradition died out at the turn of the century and that nothing of the old ways survived into modern times.